the Tesla Model 3 s and X have the lowest probability of injury of any car tested by the nth si or the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration and now with Tesla Model Y being delivered and customers getting their hands on them it probably pretty safe to say that the model Y will be as safe probably as the model 3 right around there so they’re gonna have four cars in that category which is pretty astonishing for a new car company so that got me thinking are v’s inherently safer than gasoline cars or is there something Tesla’s doing that makes them just head and shoulders above the rest and I think the answer is a combination of both there’s a few factors that play a major role in how safe a car will be first is the passive safety characteristics of the vehicle then you have active safety like airbags and sensors and everything else and then there’s just a general trends of the automotive industry car shapes and designs and we’re talk about how all of those things together are going to determine how safe our future cars are going to be no video about car safety would be complete without a discussion about the center of gravity the best would understand the center of gravity is to think about a seesaw if you had equal weight on the left and the right side then the pivot point to balance the two would be right in the middle and that pivot point would represent the center of gravity now let’s say one side had twice as much weight well then that pivot point is going to have to slide over to balance the two out so there’s a center of gravity in the X direction in the Y direction and in the Z direction and that point is really critical to how a car will behave and handle on the road take for instance something like a Porsche 911 or the new Tesla Roadster these are sports cars and one of the critical design elements of a good sports car is a low center of gravity in the Z direction sports cars are really low to the ground they have low roof lines and most of the mass is moved as load down into the cabin as possible now clearly when it comes to electric vehicles they have a huge advantage and that is the fact that the heaviest part of an e V the batteries can be housed on the bottom of the car at the very lowest point possible in comparison a gasoline car would have a heavy engine and transmission sitting up much higher in the trunk in the front of the car or if it’s rear engine and there in the back but fundamentally the center of gravity isn’t going to be as low that’s why a car a family sedan like the Tesla Model 3 can have even better center of gravity numbers than sports cars after 911 because of this phenomena so the low center of gravity is really good for sports cars and driving dynamics but it’s also really important for one of the most critical parts of an accident and that is a rollover if you drew an imaginary line through the car center of gravity and then drew a line through to the tires where they made contact you would have kind of a rollover angle and as you can see when you compare something like a Tesla Model 3 to a pickup truck you can see how dramatically hired the rollover angle is for a pickup truck for a Tesla Model 3 you’d have to rotate it all the way to vertical in order for it to roll over in comparison that pickup truck is almost already there and with just a little bit of rotation it would begin to topple and that’s what makes SUVs and trucks so much more dangerous and more prone to rollover so in 2020 only about 2% of car accidents in the US were rollovers however rollovers accounted for 35% of all the deaths in these accidents doesn’t happen very often but when it does the results are usually pretty catastrophic nearly 90 percent of rollovers happened during normal driving in normal conditions and nearly 85% of rollover accidents only involved one single car so this is why people think that they’re really safe with SUVs and trucks bigger vehicles but because of that higher center of gravity the likelihood of rollover even if they’re just trying to do a small course correction can be much higher the second physics concept is the polar moment of inertia so think of inertia as the resistance to change in motion so if you’re going a hundred miles an hour the car doesn’t want to slow down it wants to keep going a hundred miles an hour and if a car is parked it doesn’t want to start moving and that’s why most of cars energy is expended getting the vehicle moving once it’s going it takes much less energy to keep it moving so that’s linear momentum and linear inertia but there’s also a rotational component to that and that’s the polar moment of inertia the classic example here is the figure skater who’s doing a spin when they put their hands out the polar moment of inertia increases as a result their rotational speed decreases but when they pull their hands in tight the polar moment of inertia decreases and they began to spin up faster ilan has tweeted about this as one of the characteristics of the tesla vehicles and what makes them safer because even if you have 50/50 weight distribution all that really means is when you add mass to one side you’ve also added it to the other but lower polar moment of inertia means that you don’t have heavy masses far away from the center of gravity so if you look at the layout of a gasoline-powered car versus an electric vehicle you’ll see that there’s a lot more heavy components further away from the center in the example of the gas car in the electric vehicle you’ve got smaller motors lightweight motors and batteries that are all closer to the center of gravity as a result of this you’ll have better handling and driving dynamics plus the vehicle will be easier to turn and rotate and in the event of a crash if you hit something not exactly head-on and you have a low polar moment of inertia you could potentially be more likely to spin away from the collision than continue to crumple into it now this one is harder to quantify scientifically but it is one of those side effects of having a lower polar moment of inertia so now for the fun part if we just can to break into a little bit of physics we can understand what happens in the event of a crash so we have momentum which is the mass times the velocity how much something weighs times how fast it’s going you have force which is mass times acceleration time we are all familiar with time in seconds and impulse impulse is defined as the change in force as a function of time and in the event of a collision the goal is to lower the forces that a human feels force can be represented as the change of momentum over the change in time what that tells us is the goal should be to spread the force out over a longer period of time and if you can do that you can absorb the energy and not feel as high of a force and this is why vehicles have front crumple zones here is a video of the Tesla Model 3 and an Audi a4 in a forward frontal crash and you’ll notice that the Audi has a huge heavy engine and transmission that is going to be shoved into the passenger compartment and as a result its crumple zone just isn’t as big as the model threes the model 3 doesn’t have a big engine sitting up there the motors are lower to the ground and in the event of a collision aren’t going to get smushed into the passenger compartment and it will in turn leave the occupants of the vehicle safer these are all pretty fundamental things that all electric vehicles will have in common and if your next vehicle is going to be electric you should look forward to having these new safety features as inherent design benefits of v’s but tesla does also have some patented things that they do to make their car safer for one when I got my Tesla Model 3 I love the huge panoramic roof but I was kind of worried that it might actually make the car not as safe but it turns out the Tesla Model 3 roof is incredibly safe the eight pillars and B pillars are really strong and highly reinforced plus that strong tempered glass is also a passive safety feature because unlike a traditional car with a sheet metal roof which will just crumple the glass actually requires a lot of force in order for it to crack and as the cracks propagate and the glass continues to shatter it absorbs huge amounts of energy and as a result in the event of a side collision a Tesla Model 3 has much less intrusion into the passenger compartment than other cars that don’t have this now this could be something that any company can use in the future but hopefully these kinds of ideas and new takes on how to solve these engineering problems will make all cars safer but at the end of the day as much as we might have passive safety involved the reality is the main reason why driving is so dangerous is because of you and me the human element and that’s where self-driving and automobile autonomy are going to be the biggest safety advantages going forward self-driving cars are going to be safer because they aren’t going to be tired or distracted and they’re not gonna be under the influence of anything so as a result when more and more cars are driving themselves there is going to be less totalities and less accidents on the road Tesla has a huge advantage in this space because they have deeply invested into the self-driving technology especially with all their sensors and machine learning models for their self-driving technology every time use autopilot Tesla is able to track and figure out how their self-driving tech is working and in the event that it can’t figure out what’s going on with a lane change or some marker or some road condition that it hasn’t seen before and it tells you to take over it can record what’s going on and allow the team of Tesla to monitor the footage and figure out how they can better improve upon their self-driving and over the air through machine learning models and AI they can make all of their cars better and no one has more self-driving tech on the road than Tesla does with their fleet of nearly a million strong now self-driving isn’t a inherent advantage that electric vehicles have over gasoline cars sure electric vehicles are more digital and easier to control than gasoline cars but gasoline cars can have high-tech self-driving features as well but the difference is that there aren’t very many old electric vehicles and there’s tons of old gasoline vehicles so as self-driving cars become more common you’re probably going to be more likely to trade in your old gasoline car and if you’re gonna buy a new car in the next couple of years it’s going to be increasingly difficult to justify buying a gasoline car I actually think Tesla’s advantage in self-driving is so big that other companies should probably form a team and work on this together and license this technology to each other because if Ford and GM and Honda are all going to try to tackle self-driving themselves that might be really challenging and Tesla’s lead is only going to get so I think there’s probably a better play is to have some sort of consortium of car companies that get together and work on this as a team to better fund and research self-driving but the reality is when this happens and there’s more cars on the road that are self-driving and there’s more cars that are electric the number of fatalities and deaths due to automobiles is going to significantly be decreased [Music] so what do you guys think what kind of cars do you think of as safe do you usually think of SUVs and bigger cars as safer do you own a Tesla or an electric vehicle and if you have had any accidents or any feedback on just how safe some of these different cars have been please let us know we’d love to hear from you thank you so much for watching if you’re new hit that subscribe button the Bell icon so you don’t miss our future videos we’re a channel dedicated the future of technology energy and transportation and a special thank you to all of our patrons on patreon our views and our channel performance has suffered in the last couple of weeks and as a result it’s really been our patrons on patreon who have been keeping the show running so thank you so much and if you want to be a rock star supporter at this show please consider joining us on patreon so that pretty much does it for me with this video hope you enjoyed it thank you so much for watching I’m Ricky this is tuba DaVinci it will catch you guys on the next one [Music]


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